Hemophilia is a rare genetic disorder that affects the blood’s ability to clot. People with hemophilia bleed longer than normal because they don’t have enough of a protein called factor VIII (FVIII) or factor IX (FIX). These proteins help blood clot by forming a mesh that traps blood cells and platelets.
There are two main types of hemophilia: hemophilia A and hemophilia B. Hemophilia A is caused by a deficiency in FVIII, and hemophilia B is caused by a deficiency in FIX.
The severity of hemophilia varies from person to person. Some people with hemophilia have mild symptoms and only bleed after surgery or a serious injury. Others have severe hemophilia and bleed spontaneously, even with minor bumps or scrapes.
There is no cure for hemophilia, but there are treatments that can help control bleeding. These treatments include:
- Factor replacement therapy: This involves injecting the missing factor into the bloodstream.
- Desmopressin (DDAVP): This medication helps the body release more of its own factor VIII.
- Antifibrinolytics: These medications help prevent blood clots from breaking down.
People with hemophilia should also avoid activities that increase their risk of bleeding, such as contact sports and contact with sharp objects. They should also wear a medical alert bracelet or necklace so that others know they have hemophilia.
With proper treatment, people with hemophilia can live long and healthy lives. However, they will need to be careful to avoid injuries and to take medication as directed.
Here are some additional facts about hemophilia:
- It is most common in males, but it can also occur in females.
- It is estimated that about 1 in 5,000 people have hemophilia A, and about 1 in 30,000 people have hemophilia B.
- There is no known way to prevent hemophilia.
- The symptoms of hemophilia can range from mild to severe.
- Treatment for hemophilia can help control bleeding and prevent complications.
If you think you or your child may have hemophilia, see a doctor for diagnosis and treatment.