Epilepsy is a neurological disorder that causes recurring seizures. A seizure is a sudden burst of electrical activity in the brain that can cause a variety of symptoms, including jerking or shaking movements, loss of consciousness, and confusion.
Epilepsy is not contagious and is not caused by any specific behavior or lifestyle choices. In most cases, the cause of epilepsy is unknown. However, some possible causes include:
- Brain injury: This can be caused by a head injury, stroke, or brain tumor.
- Genetic disorders: Some people are born with a genetic mutation that increases their risk of developing epilepsy.
- Infections: Some infections, such as meningitis and encephalitis, can damage the brain and lead to epilepsy.
- Developmental disorders: Some developmental disorders, such as autism and cerebral palsy, are associated with an increased risk of epilepsy.
The symptoms of epilepsy can vary depending on the type of seizure. Some common symptoms include:
- Jerking or shaking movements
- Loss of consciousness
- A blank stare
- Uncontrollable movements of the eyes, face, or limbs
- A feeling of déjà vu or jamais vu
- A strange smell or taste
- A tingling sensation in the arms or legs
Epilepsy is diagnosed by a doctor based on a physical exam, medical history, and EEG (electroencephalogram). An EEG is a test that measures the electrical activity of the brain.
The treatment for epilepsy depends on the severity of the seizures and the underlying cause. In most cases, the first line of treatment is medication. There are many different anti-epileptic medications available, and the best medication for you will depend on your individual needs.
Other treatment options for epilepsy include surgery, vagus nerve stimulation, and dietary therapy.
Most people with epilepsy can live normal lives with proper treatment. However, there are some risks associated with epilepsy, such as:
- Injuries: Seizures can lead to falls and other injuries.
- Status epilepticus: This is a life-threatening condition in which a seizure does not stop.
- Sudden unexplained death in epilepsy (SUDEP): This is a rare but serious condition in which a person with epilepsy dies suddenly and unexpectedly.
If you have epilepsy, it is important to work with your doctor to develop a treatment plan that will help you manage your seizures and reduce your risk of complications. You should also avoid driving, swimming, and other activities that could be dangerous if you have a seizure.
There are many resources available to help people with epilepsy and their families. The Epilepsy Foundation is a great resource for information and support. You can also find support groups in your community.